Agenda: Week of November 26 - 30, 2018

Advanced Placement World History with Mr. Duez
Unit 3 - AN AGE OF ACCELERATING CONNECTIONS 500–1500
CH 12: The Mongols & CH 13: Worlds of the 15th Century
WEEK AT A GLANCE:
MON: Pick up "The Breakup DBQ" - due on Friday in class; 
Fifteenth Century MarinersEngineering an Empire: China (Focus on Ming & Zheng He's Exploration)
TUE: Paleolithic Persistence in the 15th Century
WED/THU
SAQ Practice; SAQ from previous test - review samples;
Engineering an Empire - Aztecs; Crash Course: Renaissance: Was it a Thing?; European Renaissance
FRI: Due:  "The Breakup DBQ" - we will also discuss in class; Islamic Empires of the 15th Cent.

ASSIGNMENTS:
"The Breakup DBQ" - due on Friday in class
Tuesday, Dec. 4th - TEST: Unit 2, Part B CH 12 & 13
Wed/Thu, Dec. 5th & 6th - MOCK AP TEST - First Semester Only M/Ch & SAQ

CH. 12 - Pastoral People's on the World's Stage: The Mongols!
Learning Targets:
* Analyze the significance of pastoral societies in world history
* Explain how the conditions of nomadic life differed from the rest of Eurasia
* Explain the impact of the Mongol Empire on world history
* Examine implications of the Eurasian trade sponsored by the Mongols and determine how Eurasian trading systems changed over time.

Essential Questions:
1. Prior to the rise of the Mongols, in what ways had pastoral peoples been significant in world history?
2. What accounts for the often negative attitudes of settled societies toward the pastoral peoples living on their borders? Why have historians often neglected pastoral peoples’ role in world history
3. In what ways did the Mongol Empire resemble other empires, and in what ways did it differ from them?
4. Why did it last a relatively short time?
5. In what different ways did Mongol rule affect the Islamic world, Russia, China, and Europe?



CH. 13 "The World's of the Fifteenth Century"
Learning Targets:
• Consider the variety of human experience in the fifteenth century and compare those experiences across cultures.
• Contrast the political and cultural conditions in China’s Ming Dynasty and Europe’s “Renaissance Period” on the cusp of the modern world and analyze why Europe came to dominate the world in the modern era.
• Determine the factors that bring about change in the Islamic world (Middle East and West Africa) in the fifteenth century and analyze the differences between the four Muslim Empires.
• Contrast Aztec and Inca thinking about political administration and culture.

Essential Questions:
1. Assume for the moment that the Chinese had not ended their maritime voyages in 1433. How might the subsequent development of world history have been different? What value is there in asking this kind of “what if ” or counter-factual question?
2. How would you define the major achievements of Ming dynasty China?
3. What political and cultural differences stand out in the histories of fifteenth-century China and Western Europe? What similarities are apparent?
4. In what ways did European maritime voyaging in the fifteenth century differ from that of China? What accounts for these differences?
5. What differences can you identify among the four major empires in the Islamic world of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries?

Monday, November 26, 2018
Quote of the Day: "Being deeply loved by someone gives you strength, while loving someone deeply gives you courage." Lao Tzu

1. DO NOW: Pick up "The Breakup DBQ" - due on Friday in class

2. Notes, Video, Discussion: Fifteenth Century MarinersEngineering an Empire: China (Focus on Ming & Zheng He's Exploration)

ASSIGNMENTS: 
"The Breakup DBQ" - due on Friday in class
Tuesday, Dec. 4th - TEST: Unit 2, Part B CH 12 & 13
Wed/Thu, Dec. 5th & 6th - MOCK AP TEST - First Semester Only M/Ch & SAQ
Tuesday, November 27, 2018
Quote of the Day: "The real man smiles in trouble, gathers strength from distress, and grows brave by reflection." Thomas Paine

1. DO NOW: Why did China build Zheng He's fleet? Why motivated Europeans to build little ships?

2. Notes, Video, Discussion: Paleolithic Persistence in the 15th Century

ASSIGNMENTS: 
"The Breakup DBQ" - due on Friday in class
Tuesday, Dec. 4th - TEST: Unit 2, Part B CH 12 & 13
Wed/Thu, Dec. 5th & 6th - MOCK AP TEST - First Semester Only M/Ch & SAQ
Wednesday, November 28, 2018
& Thursday, November 29, 2018
Quote of the Day: "Character cannot be developed in ease and quiet. Only through experience of trial and suffering can the soul be strengthened, ambition inspired, and success achieved." - Helen Keller

1. DO NOW:  Pick up the handouts for the SAQ practice on the front table. 
What is the POV of the author of the document?
2. Notes, Video, Discussion: Crash Course: Renaissance: Was it a Thing?
European Renaissance

3. Notes, Video, Discussion: Engineering an Empire - Aztecs

ASSIGNMENTS: 
"The Breakup DBQ" - due on Friday in class
Tuesday, Dec. 4th - TEST: Unit 2, Part B CH 12 & 13
Wed/Thu, Dec. 5th & 6th - MOCK AP TEST - First Semester Only M/Ch & SAQ
Friday, November 30, 2018
Quote of the Day: "A hero is an ordinary individual who finds the strength to persevere and endure in spite of overwhelming obstacles." - Christopher Reeve

1. DO NOW: Pass back SAQ responses from previous test. Go over samples of previous work - both good and not so good examples.

2. Notes, Video, Discussion: Islamic Empires of the 15th Cent.

ASSIGNMENTS: 
Tuesday, Dec. 4th - TEST: Unit 2, Part B CH 12 & 13
Wed/Thu, Dec. 5th & 6th - MOCK AP TEST - First Semester Only M/Ch & SAQ

Congrats to our AHS National Merit Scholars! Way to Go!

Currently I have Jordan, Aden, and Erika in AP Psychology. I have had Asad and Erin in class last year in AP Psychology. Plus, Jordan, Aden, and Morgan were all AP World History students with me. It is so exciting to see them doing great things on a national stage. The hard work pays off!
Erin, Jordan, and Asad are all National Merit Scholar Finalists. Top 1% of seniors in America. 
National Merit Commended Scholars included Morgan Marinelli and Aden Smith from AHS. 
National Hispanic Scholars are: Jordan and Erika

Agenda: Week of November 12-16, 2018

Advanced Placement World History with Mr. Duez
Chapter 12 - Mongol Moment & Chapter 13 - Worlds of the 15th Century
WEEK AT A GLANCE:
*No late arrival this week - 5 regular schedule days*
MONCH 13 Quiz - World's of the 15th Century; Review Quiz
TUE - 2014 FRQ Prompt - Thesis breakdownCrash Course: Fifteenth Century Mariners
WED - 2015 FRQ Prompt - Thesis breakdown; European Renaissance?Islamic Empires of the 15th Cent.Aztec/Inca ComparisonEngineering an Empire - AztecsPaleolithic Persistence
THUTimed-Writing: LEQ Comparative Flip
FRI - Counselors coming in to class; Depending on time we'll also see some of Andrew Marr's History of the World

ASSIGNMENTS:
This Monday - CH 13 Quiz - World's of the 15th Century
This Thursday - Timed-Writing: LEQ Comparative Flip
Test over CH 12 & 13 - After the Fall Break

Use LEQ Tab for help in preparing

Presentation to help: 2015 - LEQ - Comparative - Trading Networks
2015 scoring guidelines
2015 student samples

Presentation to help: 2014 - LEQ - Comparative - Religion & Politics
2014 scoring guidelines
2014 student samples
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Monday, November 12, 2018
Quote: "Autumn is a second spring when every leaf is a flower." - Albert Camus

Agenda:

1. Quiz Chapter 13 - The Worlds of the Fifteen Century

2. Review Quiz 

ASSIGNMENTS:
This Thursday - Timed-Writing: LEQ Comparative Flip
Test over CH 12 & 13 - After the Fall Break
----------------------------------------------------------------
Tuesday, November 13, 2018
Quote: "Great spirits have often overcome violent opposition from mediocre minds." - Albert Einstein, (1879-1955)


Agenda:
1. DO NOW: What is your thesis for the 2014 LEQ Comparison Prompt? 
Presentation to help: 2014 - LEQ - Comparative - Religion & Politics
2014 scoring guidelines
2014 student samples


2. Notes, Video, Discussion: Notes, Discussion, Video: The Great Mariners of Unit 3: Crash Course: Fifteenth Century MarinersEngineering an Empire: China (Focus on Ming & Zheng He's Exploration)

Copy questions from overhead for Crash Course.
Crash Course: Fifteenth Century Mariners
Q1: What political and cultural differences stand out in the histories of fifteenth-century China and Western Europe? What similarities are apparent?

Q2: In what ways did European maritime voyaging in the 15th century differ from that of China? What accounts for these differences?


Engineering an Empire: China (Focus on Ming & Zheng He's Exploration)
Zheng He & the Ming Dynasty created an amazing naval power only to have the emperor destroy it all. 
While students watch the video, they will answer this question:

Assume for the moment that the Chinese had not ended their maritime voyages in 1433. How might the subsequent development of world history have been different? What value is there in asking this kind of “what if ” or counterfactual question?

ASSIGNMENTS:
This Thursday - Timed-Writing: LEQ Comparative Flip
Test over CH 12 & 13 - After the Fall Break
----------------------------------------------------------------
Wednesday, November 14, 2018
Quote: "There is nothing either good or bad, but thinking makes it so." - Shakespeare (Hamlet)


Agenda:
1. DO NOW: What is your thesis for the 2015 LEQ Comparison Prompt? 


Presentation to help: 2015 - LEQ - Comparative - Trading Networks
2015 scoring guidelines

2015 student samples

2. Notes, Discussion, & VideoCh 13 - World's of the 15th Century: European Renaissance?Islamic Empires of the 15th Cent.Aztec/Inca ComparisonEngineering an Empire - AztecsPaleolithic Persistence

ASSIGNMENTS:
This Thursday - Timed-Writing: LEQ Comparative Flip

Test over CH 12 & 13 - After the Fall Break
----------------------------------------------------------------
Thursday, November 15, 2018
Quote:  "Education survives when what has been learnt has been forgotten." - B.F. Skinner (1904-1990)


Agenda:
1. Timed-Writing: LEQ Comparative Flip

Presentation to help: 2015 - LEQ - Comparative - Trading Networks
2015 scoring guidelines
2015 student samples

Presentation to help: 2014 - LEQ - Comparative - Religion & Politics
2014 scoring guidelines
2014 student samples

ASSIGNMENTS:
Test over CH 12 & 13 - After the Fall Break
----------------------------------------------------------------
Friday, November 16, 2018
Quote: "The disappearance of a sense of responsibility is the most far-reaching consequence of submission to authority." - Stanley Milgram (1933-1984)

Agenda: 
PEP RALLY SHORTENED PERIODS
1. Counselors coming in to class; Depending on time we'll also see some of Andrew Marr's History of the World

ASSIGNMENTS:
Test over CH 12 & 13 - After the Fall Break

Mongol DBQ Poster - Help



A little help on the DBQ Posters: 

The Attitudes Towards Mongols DBQ Handout

ATTITUDES TOWARDS MONGOLS DBQ Question Breakdown

DBQ POSTERS - HOW TO - With Examples of Attitudes Towards Mongols DBQ



HOW TO WHAP THE DBQ

For Friday, be sure you are doing whatever your group focused upon. Hopefully you have divided up the work involved to make this easier. If you have:
Meaning of the document
Analysis of the document (focusing on the question)
Point of view of the document
Your group can just cut out those and paste them onto the poster on Friday. The assembly of the DBQ Poster will take some time, but everyone should be able to finish by the end of the period on Friday.

A few examples of the layout (do not just blindly copy their work, it is not necessarily correct):



Agenda: Week of November 5-9, 2018

Advanced Placement World History with Mr. Duez
Unit 3 - AN AGE OF ACCELERATING CONNECTIONS 500–1500
CH 12: The Mongols & CH 13: Worlds of the 15th Century
WEEK AT A GLANCE:
MON: Quiz Ch. 12 - "Pastoralists on the World's Stage: The Mongols"Quiz Review
TUE: Mongol DBQ - work in class in groups. Put the posters together in class tomorrow. 
WED/THUMongol DBQ - work in class in groups. Put the posters together. Display posters and discuss.; DBQ Poster Instructions; Mongol DBQ Help
Discuss Timed-Writing: LEQ Comparative Flip - we will write this next Wed/Thu.;
The Great Mariners of Unit 3: Crash Course: Fifteenth Century MarinersEngineering an Empire: China (Focus on Ming & Zheng He's Exploration)
FRI: Ch 13 - World's of the 15th Century: European Renaissance?Islamic Empires of the 15th Cent.Aztec/Inca ComparisonEngineering an Empire - Aztecs; Paleolithic Persistence
__________________________________________________
ASSIGNMENTS:
This Monday: Quiz CH 12
This Wed/Thurs: We will do posters in class - Mongol DBQDBQ Poster InstructionsMongol DBQ Help 
Next Monday: Quiz CH 13
Next Wed/Thu: Timed-Writing: LEQ Comparative Flip

Timed-Writing: LEQ Comparative Flip
CH. 12 - Pastoral People's on the World's Stage: The Mongols!
Learning Targets:
* Analyze the significance of pastoral societies in world history
* Explain how the conditions of nomadic life differed from the rest of Eurasia
* Explain the impact of the Mongol Empire on world history
* Examine implications of the Eurasian trade sponsored by the Mongols and determine how Eurasian trading systems changed over time.

Essential Questions:
1. Prior to the rise of the Mongols, in what ways had pastoral peoples been significant in world history?
2. What accounts for the often negative attitudes of settled societies toward the pastoral peoples living on their borders? Why have historians often neglected pastoral peoples’ role in world history
3. In what ways did the Mongol Empire resemble other empires, and in what ways did it differ from them?
4. Why did it last a relatively short time?
5. In what different ways did Mongol rule affect the Islamic world, Russia, China, and Europe?
CH. 13 "The World's of the Fifteenth Century"
Learning Targets:
• Consider the variety of human experience in the fifteenth century and compare those experiences across cultures.
• Contrast the political and cultural conditions in China’s Ming Dynasty and Europe’s “Renaissance Period” on the cusp of the modern world and analyze why Europe came to dominate the world in the modern era.
• Determine the factors that bring about change in the Islamic world (Middle East and West Africa) in the fifteenth century and analyze the differences between the four Muslim Empires.
• Contrast Aztec and Inca thinking about political administration and culture.

Essential Questions:
1. Assume for the moment that the Chinese had not ended their maritime voyages in 1433. How might the subsequent development of world history have been different? What value is there in asking this kind of “what if ” or counter-factual question?
2. How would you define the major achievements of Ming dynasty China?
3. What political and cultural differences stand out in the histories of fifteenth-century China and Western Europe? What similarities are apparent?
4. In what ways did European maritime voyaging in the fifteenth century differ from that of China? What accounts for these differences?
5. What differences can you identify among the four major empires in the Islamic world of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries?
__________________________________________________
Monday, November 5, 2018
Quote: “To be successful you don’t need to do extraordinary things, you just need to do ordinary things extraordinarily well.” – Jim Rohn

Agenda:
1. Quiz - CH 12: The Pastoral Peoples on the World Stage: "The Mongols!" 

2. Review Quiz

ASSIGNMENTS:
This Monday: Quiz CH 12
This Wed/Thurs: We will do posters in class - Mongol DBQDBQ Poster InstructionsMongol DBQ Help 
Next Monday: Quiz CH 13
Next Wed/Thu: Timed-Writing: LEQ Comparative Flip
China's "Kind of a Big Deal" - The Islamic World feels a bit confused - Europe's little engines that could... & does.
__________________________________________________
Tuesday, November 6, 2018
Quote: “We are what we repeatedly do; excellence, then, is not an act but a habit.” —Aristotle

Agenda:
1. DO NOW: Prepare Mongol DBQ documents.

2. Mongol DBQ - work in class in groups - Write out a plan, thesis, POV, document analysis. Then get the poster to be able to assemble it together. 
DBQ Poster InstructionsMongol DBQ Help

ASSIGNMENTS:
This Monday: Quiz CH 12
This Wed/Thurs: We will do posters in class - Mongol DBQDBQ Poster InstructionsMongol DBQ Help 
Next Monday: Quiz CH 13
Next Wed/Thu: Timed-Writing: LEQ Comparative Flip
One of Mr. Duez's former students studied in Florence during her days at Baylor. Ayla loved it!
__________________________________________________________
Wednesday, November 7, 2018
Thursday, November 8, 2018
Quote: “We do not need magic to transform our world. We carry all of the power we need inside ourselves already.” - J.K. Rowling

Agenda:
1. DO NOW:  Prepare work for Mongol DBQ assembly

2. Finish posters in groups then display posters and discuss. 
DBQ Poster InstructionsMongol DBQ Help

3. Discuss Timed-Writing: LEQ Comparative Flip - we will write this next Wed/Thu.;


4. Notes, Discussion, Video: The Great Mariners of Unit 3: Crash Course: Fifteenth Century MarinersEngineering an Empire: China (Focus on Ming & Zheng He's Exploration)

Copy questions from overhead for Crash Course.
Crash Course: Fifteenth Century Mariners
Q1: What political and cultural differences stand out in the histories of fifteenth-century China and Western Europe? What similarities are apparent?

Q2: In what ways did European maritime voyaging in the 15th century differ from that of China? What accounts for these differences?

Engineering an Empire: China (Focus on Ming & Zheng He's Exploration)
Zheng He & the Ming Dynasty created an amazing naval power only to have the emperor destroy it all. 
While students watch the video, they will answer this question:


Assume for the moment that the Chinese had not ended their maritime voyages in 1433. How might the subsequent development of world history have been different? What value is there in asking this kind of “what if ” or counterfactual question?

ASSIGNMENTS:
Next Monday: Quiz CH 13
Next Wed/Thu: Timed-Writing: LEQ Comparative Flip
________________________________________________
Friday, November 9, 2018
Quote: “The person who says something is impossible should not interrupt the person who is doing it.” – Chinese proverb

Agenda:
1. DO NOW Question: What political and cultural differences stand out in the histories of fifteenth-century China and Western Europe? What similarities are apparent? In what ways did European maritime voyaging in the 15th century differ from that of China? What accounts for these differences?

2. Notes/Discussion/Video What distinguished the Aztec & Inca empires from each other?
Aztecs & Inca Compared
VIDEO: Engineering an Empire Aztecs
How did Aztec religious thinking support the empire?
How did the Aztec Empire feed their vast population (possibly 15 million)?

3. Notes, Video, & Discussion: What differences can you identify among the four major empires in the Islamic world of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries?

4. Notes, Video, & Discussion: How has the paleolithic lifestyle continued all the way through Unit 3 & into the 1400s?

Paleolithic Persistence in the 15th Century

IF TIME: Crash Course World History: Renaissance
What energy and inspiration gave rise to the Renaissance? Consider why Europe came to dominate the world in the modern era, & how well this could have been predicted in 1500.

ASSIGNMENTS:
Next Monday: Quiz CH 13
Next Wed/Thu: Timed-Writing: LEQ Comparative Flip

Week of Oct. 29 - Nov. 2, 2018

Advanced Placement World History with Mr. Duez
Unit 3  AN AGE OF ACCELERATING CONNECTIONS 500–1500
CH 10 Christendom in W. Europe CH 11 The Worlds of Islam ~ Afro-Eurasian Connections
WEEK AT A GLANCE:
MON - Reading Check Quiz - Chapter 11 - Islam; Review Quiz
TUE - Islam - Impact on WomenCrash Course: Islam, the Quran, & the 5 Pillars; Document/Visual Sources from Unit 3, Part I Reviewed.
WED/THUTEST Chapters 8, 9, 10, & 11 + SAQ
FRI Prep for November 14th & 15th - LEQ: Flip between Comparative 2014 & 2015; Introduction to the Mongols - Crash Course WH: Wait for it... The Mongols

ASSESSMENTS:
Wed/Thu - Test over Unit 3 Part 1 Chapter 8, 9, 10 & 11 
Next Monday - Quiz CH 12 - Pastoralists on the World State (The Mongols!)
Next week we will use the Mongol DBQ to create DBQ Posters in class. 
November 14th & 15th - LEQ: Flip between Comparative 2014 & 2015
Chapter 11 - The Islamic World
Learning Targets:
• Analyze the causes behind the spread of Islam
• Explain how the dynamism of the Islamic world was the most influential of the third-wave civilizations
• Examine the religious divisions within Islam and how they affected political development
• Compare Islam as a source of cultural encounters with Christian, African, and Hindu cultures
• Compare the accomplishments of the Islamic world in the period 600–1500 C.E. with those of their contemporaries.


Essential Questions:
1. In what ways did the early history of Islam reflect its Arabian origins?
2. How does the core message of Islam compare with that of Judaism and Christianity?
3. In what ways was the rise of Islam revolutionary, both in theory and in practice?
4. Why were Arabs able to construct such a huge empire so quickly?
5. What accounts for the widespread conversion to Islam?
6. What is the difference between Sunni and Shia Islam?


-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Monday, October 29, 2018
Quote: "History is philosophy teaching by examples."  - Thucydides, The History of the Peloponnesian War

Agenda:
1. Reading Check Quiz - Chapter 11 - Islam (You may use your handwritten notes).

2. Review the quiz. & Question: 

ASSIGNMENTS:
Wed/Thu - Test over Unit 3 Part 1 Chapter 8, 9, 10 & 11 
Next Monday - Quiz CH 12 - Pastoralists on the World State (The Mongols!)
Next week we will use the Mongol DBQ to create DBQ Posters in class. 
November 14th & 15th - LEQ: Flip between Comparative 2014 & 2015
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Tuesday, October 30, 2018
Quote: "People are trapped in history and history is trapped in them."  - James Baldwin

Agenda:
1. DO NOW: How did the rise of Islam change the lives of women?

2. Notes, Video, Discussion: Islam - Impact on WomenCrash Course: Islam, the Quran, & the 5 Pillars

3. Document/Visual Sources from Unit 3, Part I Reviewed.

ASSIGNMENTS:
Wed/Thu - Test over Unit 3 Part 1 Chapter 8, 9, 10 & 11 
Next Monday - Quiz CH 12 - Pastoralists on the World State (The Mongols!)
Next week we will use the Mongol DBQ to create DBQ Posters in class. 
November 14th & 15th - LEQ: Flip between Comparative 2014 & 2015
Chapter 12 - Pastoralists on the World Stage
The Mongols!
Learning Targets: 
* Analyze the significance of pastoral societies in world history
* Explain how the conditions of nomadic life differed from the rest of Eurasia
* Explain the impact of the Mongol Empire on world history
* Examine implications of the Eurasian trade sponsored by the Mongols and determine how Eurasian trading systems changed over time.

Essential Questions:
1. Prior to the rise of the Mongols, in what ways had pastoral peoples been significant in world history?
2. What accounts for the often negative attitudes of settled societies toward the pastoral peoples living on their borders? Why have historians often neglected pastoral peoples’ role in world history?
3. In what ways did the Mongol Empire resemble other empires, and in what ways did it differ from them? 
4. Why did it last a relatively short time?
5. In what different ways did Mongol rule affect the Islamic world, Russia, China, and Europe?
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Wednesday, October 31, 2018
Thursday, November 1, 2018
Quote: "History with its flickering lamp stumbles along the trail of the past, trying to reconstruct its scenes, to revive its echoes, and kindle with pale gleams the passion of former days."  - Winston Churchill

Agenda:
1. TEST: CH 8, 9, 10, & 11 - Plus, SAQ questions


2. Pick up the Mongol DBQ packet & read and annotate for tomorrow's class. 

ASSIGNMENTS:
Wed/Thu - Test over Unit 3 Part 1 Chapter 8, 9, 10 & 11 
Next Monday - Quiz CH 12 - Pastoralists on the World State (The Mongols!)
Next week we will use the Mongol DBQ to create DBQ Posters in class. 

November 14th & 15th - LEQ: Flip between Comparative 2014 & 2015
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
Friday, November 2, 2018
Quote: "History is filled with the sound of silken slippers going downstairs and wooden shoes coming up."  - Voltaire

Agenda: 
1. DO NOW: Pick up the prompt for the LEQ - November 14th & 15th - LEQ: Flip between Comparative 2014 & 2015

2. Crash Course WH: Wait for it... The Mongols

3. Notes over Crash Course: The Mongols & DBQ Prep

ASSIGNMENTS:
Wed/Thu - Test over Unit 3 Part 1 Chapter 8, 9, 10 & 11 
Next Monday - Quiz CH 12 - Pastoralists on the World State (The Mongols!)
Next week we will use the Mongol DBQ to create DBQ Posters in class. 
November 14th & 15th - LEQ: Flip between Comparative 2014 & 2015